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Black Settlement - Griffin House National Historic Site, a home purchased in 1834 by a Bla

Griffin House National Historic Site, a home purchased in 1834 by a Black immigrant from Virginia.

NOTE: Resources containing hyperlinks to online materials are highlighted in Bold font

“Coloured Refugees Formed Settlement.” Hamilton Spectator, 15 July 1946. 


“Concession Street History - Early Black Community on Hamilton Mountain.” Concession Street.


“Educational Resources: JAN 31 2012 Adrienne Shadd Talk.” Herstories Cafe.


“Fleeing Slaves Found Refuge in ‘Little Africa’ on Mountain.” Hamilton Spectator, 25 October 1984.


“Former Coloured Colony on Mount Dubbed Little Africa.” Hamilton Spectator, 15 July 1936.


“Griffin House Experience.” Experience - Commons. 


“Griffin House National Historic Site of Canada.” Parks Canada.


“Griffin House National Historic Site.” City of Hamilton.


“Griffin House: A National Historic Site.” Ancaster Township Historical Society.


“John Christie Holland.” African Canadian Online.


“Little Africa Remembered.” Hamilton Mountain News, March 5, 2013.


“Mission School, Frame Church, Toll Gates.” Hamilton Spectator, 15 November 1947.


“Richard Sorrick.” Ontario Black History.


[Hamilton Community Foundation]. (2020). Vital Signs -- Hamilton’s Black history -- February 5, 2020. [Video]. YouTube.


[Hamilton Public Library]. (2021). Aerial Tour of Historic Griffin House | DoorsOpen 2021. [Video]. YouTube.


A. Jeffers Toby, ed. (1991). Hamilton: A Black Perspective. A History of Blacks and their Contribution. Hamilton: Afro Canadian Caribbean Association of Hamilton and District. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Adam Carter. “The untold story of how Hamilton’s black community was built.” CBC News, February 20, 2018.


Adrienne Shadd. (2010). “Little Africa’ Revisited: Tracing Hamilton Mountain’s Black Community:” Report to Culture Division, Community Service Services Department. City of Hamilton. [Appendix F in PDF]


Adrienne Shadd. (2010). The Journey From Tollgate to Parkway: African Canadians in Hamilton. Dundurn Press. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Carmela Fragomeni. “Tiny hamlet unveils rich history of welcoming runaway slaves in the 1800s.” Hamilton Spectator, September 22, 2017.


Gary E. French. (1978). Men of Colour: An Historical Account of the Black Settlement on Wilberforce Street and in Oro Township, Simcoe County, Ontario, 1819-1949. Kaste Books.


Huw Morgan. “Slave’s Freedom Document Awakens Search for Roots,” Hamilton Spectator, March 15, 1979.


Jane Mulkewich. (2006). “Little Africa – Settlement Goes Back to 1850’s.” In Margaret Houghton (ed.) Vanished Hamilton II. North Shore Publishing Inc. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Kate Adach. “A video tour of fugitive slave life in Hamilton.” CBC News, July 13, 2012.


Mark McNeil. “Author chronicles Hamilton Mountain’s ‘Little Africa’.” Hamilton Spectator, February 1, 2013.


Mark McNeil. “One of the first non-natives in area was a slave.” Hamilton Spectator, July 30, 2013.


Park History Program. (2000). “The Hill Family in Slavery, Freedom, & Transition.” In Exploring a Common Past: Researching and Interpreting the Underground Railroad. National Park Service.

Scott, Tara C. “how we came to be: the legacy of mary roth + wesley rhodes.” dhamma for mama*.

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