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NOTE: Resources containing hyperlinks to online materials are highighted in Bold font

“‘Ms. Tilly’ Johnson retires from the market.” Hamilton Spectator, July 4, 2015.


“2021 John C. Holland Awards winners.” Hamilton Spectator, June 20, 2021.

“2022 John C. Holland Awards winners.” Hamilton Spectator, June 19, 2022.


“60 years since death of John C. Holland.” Hamilton Spectator, June 22, 2014.


“A community’s shining light.” Hamilton Spectator, February 17, 2010.


“A Flashback to 1930: The Klan’s March Through Oakville.” Hamilton Spectator, December 26, 1960.


“A full house at John Holland Awards gala.” Hamilton Spectator, February 3, 2013.


“A Joke on Astronomical Johnson.” Hamilton Spectator, August 23, 1887.


“A Whitewashing Proceeding.” Hamilton Evening Times, October 27, 1866.


“Aaron Albert Mossell (1863-1951).” Penn University Archives & Records Centre.


“Aboriginals, black people over-represented at Hamilton jail.” CBC News, December 6, 2013.


“About Us.” A.C.C.P.I. Caribbean Potpourri.


“Acclaimed … for making a difference.” Hamilton Spectator, February 4, 2008.


“African depictions at issue.” Hamilton Spectator, June 14, 2010.


“African-Caribbean youth celebrated.” Hamilton Spectator, October 21, 2012.


“Afro-Caribbean community celebrates their youth.” Hamilton Spectator, October 26, 2011.


“An English Opinion of the ‘Ambitious City’.” Hamilton Spectator, October 20, 1860.


“An Outrage Upon Society: Petition From the Coloured Citizens of Hamilton.” Hamilton Evening Times, October 23, 1866.


“Astronomical Johnson.” Hamilton Spectator, August 29, 1884.


“Aug. 7, 1932: Ray Lewis becomes first Canadian black athlete to win Olympic medal.” Hamilton Spectator, September 23, 2016.


“Barber Protests Publicity in Noted Pianist Incident: Employees Not Qualified to Cut Negro’s Hair, Mayor is Told.” Hamilton Spectator, May 7, 1951.


“Barbers, Oscar Peterson & Incidents of Racism in Hamilton.” Workers’ City.


“Bernie Custis: Football Player.” (2011). Ticats.


“Bicycle Thief Got One Year: Coloured Youth, With a Past, Sent to Central Prison by Police Magistrate.” Hamilton Herald, August 24, 1907.


“Black Artists in Hamilton: Interviews by Jojo Chintoh.” Building Cultural Legacies Hamilton.


“Black community celebrates King’s dream.” Hamilton Spectator, January 17, 2011.


“Black Enslavement in Canada.” (2016). Canadian Encyclopedia.


“Black history deserves to be celebrated.” Hamilton Spectator, February 28, 2008.


“Black History Month: Who Were the Jubilee Singers.” (2014). Olive Tree Genealogy.


“Black history part of Canada’s story.” Hamilton Spectator, August 5, 2008.


“Black soldiers faced own battle.” Hamilton Spectator, May 17, 2012.


“Black Volunteers in the First World War.” (2018). Canadian Encyclopedia.


“Black Youth Achievements of Hamilton and Region.” (1995). The B.Y.A. Newsletter. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


“Black Youth Achievements of Hamilton and Region.” (1996). Harmony. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


“Black youth mentorship program resumes after friction between Hamilton board and HCCI.” CBC News, February 27, 2020.


“Blacks to Study if Centre Wanted.” Hamilton Spectator, February 15, 1972.


“Brer Johnson’s Latest Full Text of His Remarkable Address to Sir John Macdonald.” Hamilton Spectator, February 13, 1890.


“Bringing Emancipation history into the future.” Hamilton Spectator, August 2, 2011.


“Brown, Paola.” Dictionary of Canadian Biography.


“C. Astronomical Johnson Talks Wisdom to the Benighted People of St. Kitts.” Hamilton Spectator, March 6, 1897.


“Celebration a Disgraceful Scene.” Hamilton Herald, August 4, 1853.


“Celebrations of the Anniversary of Emancipation.” Daily Spectator and Journal of Commerce, August 2, 1859.


“Charles Victor Roman.” (2014). Canadian Encyclopedia.


“City acquires Griffin House in exchange for Eramosa Karst.” Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2015.


“Colored Brigade.” Hamilton Herald, December 26, 1889.


“Colored Oddfellows.” Hamilton Spectator, August 28, 1884.


“Coloured Refugees Formed Settlement.” Hamilton Spectator, 15 July 1946. 


“Community Organizations.” Black Hamilton.


“Concession Street History - Early Black Community on Hamilton Mountain.” Concession Street.


“Doomed to Destruction: The Earth to Come to and End in Fifty Years - A Modern Edition of Mother Shipton.” Hamilton Spectator, November 2, 1883.


“Dr. Gary Warner made his mark at McMaster and in Hamilton.” Ron Fanfair, December 21, 2020.


“Educational Resources: JAN 31 2012 Adrienne Shadd Talk.” Herstories Cafe.


“Educational Resources: JAN 31 2012 Adrienne Shadd Talk.” Herstories Cafe.


“Eleanor Wiltshire-Rodney, President & Founder.” A.C.C.P.I. Caribbean Potpourri.


“End of slavery marked with the ‘blessing’ of music.” Hamilton Spectator, August 3, 2010.


“Ended in a Free Fight: Watermelons in the Air at Last Night’s Dundurn Show.” Hamilton Spectator, August 20, 1896.


“Escaped from Slavery: Interesting Incident in the Life History of a Man Who Still Resides in Hamilton.” Hamilton Herald, August 23, 1902.


“February 7, 1851: Hamilton crier Paolo Brown gives powerful lecture on slavery.” Hamilton Spectator, September 23, 2016.


“Fight for Freedom.” Hamilton Spectator, August 17, 1963.


“Finding a unified Black voice in Hamilton.” CBC News, September 24, 2014.


“Fleeing Slaves Found Refuge in ‘Little Africa’ on Mountain.” The Hamilton Spectator, 25 October 1984.


“Former Coloured Colony on Mount Dubbed Little Africa.” The Hamilton Spectator, 15 July 1936.


“Former Hamilton Station (Canadian National) National Historic Site of Canada.” Parks Canada.


“Forum focuses on black history, unity and diversity.”  Hamilton Spectator, March 1, 2015.


“G. Morton Dead: He Was Letter Carrier and on Local Staff for 36 Years.” Hamilton Herald, August 20, 1927.


“Gant’s Ultimatum.” Hamilton Spectator, October 24, 1884.


“George Morton Jr., Letter Carrier & Civil Rights Advocate.” Workers’ City.


“Griffin House Experience.” Experience - Commons. 


“Griffin House National Historic Site of Canada.” Parks Canada.


“Griffin House National Historic Site.” City of Hamilton.


“Griffin House plan nixed by salamander.” Hamilton Spectator, August 8, 2017.


“Griffin House: A National Historic Site.” Ancaster Township Historical Society. 


“Groups Support Y.W.C.A. in Anti-Discrimination.” Hamilton Spectator, February 23, 1950.


“Hamilton Police Historical Society & Museum - Black History.” (2021). Facebook.


“Hamilton Police Historical Society & Museum - Black History.” (2021). Facebook.


“Hamilton Pot Pourri to benefit ill children.” The Caribbean Camera, May 29, 2003.


“Hamilton public school board naming new school after Viola Desmond.” CBC News, April 28, 2021.


“Hamilton school to be named after Bernie Custis, pro football’s 1st black starting QB.” CBC News, September 18, 2018.


“Hamilton’s black community honours leaders at annual John C. Holland Awards.” Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2018.


“Hamilton’s black community remains greatest target of hate crimes.” Hamilton Spectator, March 25, 2015.


“Hamilton’s Caribbean Potpourri marks 21 years.” 2005.


“Hamilton’s francophone celebration of Black History Month.” Hamilton Spectator, February 18, 2013.


“Have your say tonight on controversial carding by Hamilton police at city hall meeting.” Hamilton Spectator, September 15, 2015.


“Henry Criel Dead: Well-Known Citizen Passes Peacefully to the Great Beyond.” Hamilton Spectator, October 17, 1904.


“Her Majesty’s Loyal Negroes: Editor Johnson Assures the Queen of their Unswerving Devotion.” Hamilton Herald, February 12, 1890.


“History of Blacks in Area Said Thin.” Hamilton Spectator, February 6, 1989.


“Holland Awards bring together diverse black community.” Hamilton Spectator, February 7, 2016.

“Holland Awards honour stars of Hamilton’s black community.” CBC News, February 11, 2018.

“Home”. (2021). Harrison Kennedy.


“HWDSB trustee racism scandal: Where’s the accountability?” Hamilton Spectator, February 20, 2021.


“In a New Role: Prof. and Col. C.A. Johnson Announces a Startling Machine.” Hamilton Spectator, July 20, 1885.


“Inaugural Order of Hamilton honour for community leader.” Ron Fanfair, February 6, 2020. 


“It’s Black History Month.” Hamilton Spectator, February 7, 2011.


“Jackie Washington.” (2011) Canadian Encyclopedia.


“James Franklin.” (2015). Canadian Encyclopedia.


“John and Little Oscar: Professor Gant the Plaintiff in an Amusing Case.” Hamilton Herald, July 28, 1890.


“John C. Holland Awards honour 12.” Hamilton Spectator, February 8, 2015.


“John C. Holland Awards shine light on more than a dozen who improve life in Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, February 4, 2019.


“John C. Holland winners aim to give back.” Hamilton Spectator, February 2, 2014.


“John Christie Holland.” (2015). Canadian Encyclopedia.


“John Christie Holland.” African Canadian Online.


“Johnson Claims Indian Descent: No Negro Blood in Him, Victim States.” Hamilton Spectator, February 18, 1925.


“Julia Washington Berry, Toll Keeper”. Workers’ City.


“Klan Organizing in this District.” Hamilton Spectator, March 1, 1930.


“Klansmen of Hamilton Defend Their Conduct in ‘Raid’ at Oakville.” Toronto Globe, March 3, 1930.


“Ku Klux Klan: Crusaders Have No Feeling Towards the Order.” Hamilton Spectator, March 27, 1925.


“Ku, Klux, Klan Rears Head in City of Hamilton with 32 Initiations.” Toronto Globe, November 19, 1924.


“Ladies Klan Would March to City Hall: Mrs. E. Miller Declares K.K.K. Has 1000 Members Here.” Hamilton Herald, March 20, 1925.


“Let’s help young people thrive.” Hamilton Spectator, April 10, 2008.


“Lincoln Alexander Day Act.” Canada: Justice Laws Website.


“Lincoln Alexander gets his own day: Jan. 21.” Hamilton Spectator, November 29, 2013.


“Lincoln MacCauley Alexander.” (2013). Canadian Encyclopedia.


“Little Africa Remembered.” Hamilton Mountain News, March 5, 2013.


“Local and Miscellaneous Items - Emancipation.” Daily Spectator and Journal of Commerce, August 3, 1853.


“Mandela memorial moved to City Hall from church.” Hamilton Spectator, December 9, 2013.


“Market, Fire, Police: the Colored Citizens Present Their Rightful Claims.” Hamilton Herald, December 25, 1889.


“Martin Luther King celebration.” Hamilton Spectator, January 20, 2013.


“Mentorship of youth the way to success.” Hamilton Spectator, July 17, 2008.


“Mission School, Frame Church, Toll Gates.” Hamilton Spectator, 15 November 1947.


“Mr. Johnson Mops the Floor with the Spectator.” Hamilton Spectator, March 8, 1897.


“Mrs. J. Diggs has Joined the Great Majority.” Hamilton Herald, November 20, 1919.


“Nathan Francis Mossell (1856-1946).” Penn University Archives & Records Centre.


“Negro Veteran Denied Admission to Dundurn Dance.” Hamilton Spectator, July 7, 1948.


“Neighbour’s narratives remain forgotten.” Hamilton Spectator, February 6, 2014.


“Nerene Virgin, Evelyn Myrie honoured in new book.” Hamilton Spectator, June 16, 2016.


“No Discrimination’ Clause Clear, Board to be Advised.” Hamilton Spectator, May 7, 1951.


“Obama’s victory is history in the making.” Hamilton Spectator, June 5, 2008.


“OBITUARY: Stewart Memorial’s beloved icon lived a life of service.” Hamilton Spectator, March 19, 2017.


“On Earthquakes: Fourth Lecture by the Rev. C. Astronomical Johnson.” Hamilton Spectator, August 6, 1887.


“Outstanding students honoured.” Hamilton Spectator, November 4, 1996.


“Phil Edwards.” (2016). Canadian Encyclopedia.


“PHOTOS: Hamilton’s Afro Canadian Caribbean Association celebrated 40 years.” Hamilton Spectator, November 22, 2019.


“Popular phys-ed teacher and former Ticat inspired students to do their best.” Hamilton Spectator, March 5, 2018.


“Prof. Gant Dead: Best Known Colored Resident of City Passes Away.” Hamilton Herald, January 18, 1905.


“Prof. Gant Makes a Call: He Conveys the Regards of the Coloured Citizens to Lord Aberdeen.” Hamilton Spectator,  September 19, 1890.


“Prof. Gant’s Say.” Hamilton Spectator, October 23, 1884.


“Professor Gant Dead: Well-known Barber Succumbed to Bright’s Disease This Morning.” Hamilton Spectator, January 18, 1905.


“Professor Jesse Gant: a Man Whose Genius is Many-Sided.” Hamilton Herald, November 2, 1895.


“Racial slur rocks liberal candidate.”, August 8, 2007.

“Racial Discrimination Motion Lost in Council.” Hamilton Spectator, July 13, 1948.

“Ray Johnson.” (2021). McMaster Athletics Hall of Fame.


“Ray Lewis.” (2021). Canadian Encyclopedia.


“Razors in the Air: Prof. Gant’s Barber Shop Bombarded.” Hamilton Spectator, February 12, 1883.


“Recognizing success at John C. Holland awards.” Hamilton Spectator, February 6, 2011.


“Refused Haircut Here, Famed Pianist Charges: Oscar Peterson Makes Complaint; Warrender Seeks Test of By-Law.” Hamilton Spectator, May 5, 1951.

“Rev. John C. Holland Awards. Retrospecive 1996 to 2016.” (2010). Facebook.


“Rev. John C. Holland Awards turn a Sweet sixteen.” Hamilton Spectator, February 6, 2012.


“Richard Sorrick.” Ontario Black History.


“Roger Ferreira.” Building Cultural Legacies Hamilton.


“Sarah Jama on Disability Rights.” (2019). Broadbent Institute.


“Setting fine examples: African-Caribbean group honours youth who excel at school and in the community.” Hamilton Spectator, October 20, 1997.


“Smith’s Sister Ran Toll-gate.” Hamilton Spectator, June 4, 1955.


“Spice up your weekend.” Hamilton Spectator, May 28, 2014.


“St. Paul’s African Methodist Episcopal Church.” Canada West.


“States Racial Prejudice Here Hurts Negroes.” Hamilton Spectator, January 16, 1937.


“Stewart Memorial marks 175 years.” Hamilton Spectator, August 16, 2010.


“The British Lion.” Hamilton Spectator, October 12, 1883.


“The Colored Fire Brigade: Chief Aitchison Declines to GIve an Opinion on the Subject.” Hamilton Herald, December 28, 1889.


“The Colored Fire Brigade. A Corps of Sixteen Men Suggested for the Job.” Hamilton Herald, December 27, 1889.


“The New Barber Shop.” Hamilton Spectator, November 1, 1875.


“The Proposed Brigade: It is Opposed by Prof. Gant, Who Gives His Reasons.” Hamilton Herald, December 26, 1889.


“The Sun Do Move: Astronomical Opinions of Prof. Johnson of Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, January 10, 1882.


“The Sun Do Move: Reconstruction of the Sciences of Geography and Astronomy by a Hamilton Preacher.” Hamilton Spectator, May 8, 1882.


“The Walls of a City: A Chat With a Toll-Gate Keeper About Tolls.” Hamilton Spectator, January 23, 1884.


“Thomas J. Holland is Called to Rest: Was Last Surviving Member of the Noted O’Bannyon (sic) Jubilee Singers.” Hamilton Herald, June 11, 1928.

“Welcoming the changing face of Canada.” Hamilton Spectator, October 29, 2009.


“What the Firemen Think, A Mean Insinuation Against the Colored Brethren’s Staying Powers.” Hamilton Herald, December 26, 1889.


“Who is a Freemason?” Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge Free and Accepted Masons Province of Ontario and Jurisdiction.


“Wilma Morrison ‘fought passionately’ for the preservation of black history in Canada.” CBC News, June 4, 2020.


“Wilma Morrison was a formidable force.” Ron Fanfair, April 1, 2020.


“Would there be less racism and extremism if we were better at teaching Black history?” CBC News, February, 2021.


[100huntley]. (2012). Lincoln Alexander--Part of our series for Black History Month. [Video]. YouTube.


[ArchivesofOntario]. (2020). Lincoln M. Alexander: The Time Has Come to Celebrate (2020). [Video]. YouTube.


[CHCHTelevision]. (2012). CHCH - Lincoln M. Alexander Elected to Parliament 1968. [Video]. YouTube.


[CHCHTelevision]. (2012). Remembering Lincoln Alexander - CHCH. [Video]. YouTube.


[GitarCarl]. (2010). Jackie Washington - 1991 Toronto pt 1 - When The Sun Goes Down. [Video]. YouTube.


[GitarCarl]. (2010). Jackie Washington - 1991 Toronto pt 2 - The Best of Everything. [Video]. YouTube.


[GitarCarl]. (2010). Jackie Washington - 1991 Toronto pt 3 - Roll Me Baby. [Video]. YouTube.


[GitarCarl]. (2010). Jackie Washington - 1991 Toronto pt 4 - Young Man’s Blues. [Video]. YouTube.

[GriotVisionTV]. (2021). GriotVisionTV Interview – Emancipation Day Picnic with Evie Auchinvole. [Video]. YouTube.

[HAMILTON BLACK HISTORY COUNCIL]. (2022). Rev. John C. Holland Awards 25th Anniversary. [Video]. YouTube.


[Hamilton Community Foundation]. (2020). Vital Signs -- Hamilton’s Black history -- February 5, 2020. [Video]. YouTube.


[Hamilton Public Library]. (2021). Aerial Tour of Historic Griffin House | DoorsOpen 2021. [Video]. YouTube.


[HCCI Hamilton]. (2020). HCCI Anti-Racism Conference: Defying Racism in Hamilton. [Video]. YouTube.


[HCCI Hamilton]. (2020). HCCI is the conscience of a just Hamilton. [Video]. YouTube.


[HCCI Hamilton]. (2020). Moving Beyond Performative Allyship. [Video]. YouTube.


[HCCI Hamilton]. (2021). Unpacking White Supremacy: Racism and Discrimination in Hamilton Schools. [Video]. YouTube.


[HWDSBtv]. (2020). Reverend John C Holland Awards 2020 [Video]. YouTube.


[ICI Ontario]. (2019). Chant spirituel à l'Église Stewart Memorial. [Video]. YouTube.


[Joey Coleman]. (2013). City of Hamilton Nelson Mandela Memorial Service [Video]. YouTube.


[Matthew Green]. (2014). Matthew Green Campaign Launch Event Speeches [Video]. YouTube.


[Matthew Green]. (2014). Matthew Green Campaign Launch Video [Video]. YouTube.


[Matthew Green]. (2016). Ray Green’s Father’s Day Performance at Stewart Memorial Church [Video]. YouTube.


[Matthew Green]. (2019). Matthew Green NDP Hamilton Centre Welcome Video [Video]. YouTube.


[Matthew Green]. (2019). My maiden speech in the House of Commons in response to the Speech from the Throne [Video]. YouTube.


[McMasterUTV]. (2020). Honorary Degree Recipient: Gary Warner [Video]. YouTube.


[powergroupcanada]. (2011). Chats from the Lair - Episode 20 - Evelyn Myrie. [Video]. YouTube.


[Raymond Milbury]. (2020). Evelyn Myrie: March For Black Lives Canada 7/25/2020. [Video]. YouTube.


[UNILEARNAL]. (2020). Akehil | 28 Moments of Black Canadian History | Lincoln Alexander. [Video]. YouTube.


[Upstream]. (2018). We All Deserve the Right to Life - Sarah Jama [Video]. YouTube.


A. Jeffers Toby, ed. (1991). Hamilton: A Black Perspective. A History of Blacks and their Contribution. Hamilton: Afro Canadian Caribbean Association of Hamilton and District. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Aaron Parry. (2021). Deeply Rooted: A Hamilton Black History Activity Book. Afro Canadian Caribbean Association.


Abigail Cukier. “Black-owned businesses in Hamilton saw bump after Blackout Tuesday, but support is waning.” Hamilton Spectator, October 14, 2020.


Adam Carter & Julia Chapman. “Jamaicans in Hamilton celebrate Island and Canadian heritage.” CBC News, August 5, 2012.


Adam Carter. “The untold story of how Hamilton’s black community was built.” CBC News, February 20, 2018.


Adrienne Shadd. ‘Little Africa’: Where Do We Go From Here?: Report to Culture Division, Community Service Services Department. City of Hamilton. [Appendix F in PDF]


Adrienne Shadd. (2010). “Little Africa’ Revisited: Tracing Hamilton Mountain’s Black Community:” Report to Culture Division, Community Service Services Department. City of Hamilton. [Appendix F in PDF]


Adrienne Shadd. (2010). The Journey From Tollgate to Parkway: African Canadians in Hamilton. Dundurn Press. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]

Afro Canadian Caribbean Association. (2021). Standing Tall: Black Women's Stories of Triumph. Hamilton.

Alessia Passafiume. “Hamilton organizations receive racist phone calls following clash between police and housing advocates.” Hamilton Spectator, December 4, 2021.


Al-X. (1995). “Hamilton’s First Family of Jazz and Blues,” View, 9.


Albert Delitala. “Rev. John C. Holland remembered.” CHCH News, June 22, 2014.


Albert Delitala. “Sounds of the Caribbean at Mohawk.” CHCH News, June 1, 2014.


An Evening with Lincoln Alexander: in grateful recognition to a citizen of Hamilton who has served us well. Hamilton, ON. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Archives: Jackie Washington. McMaster Libraries.


Ayo Adewumi [Director]. (2016). Wilma [Documentary].

Barry Gray. “Hamilton Anti-Racism groups declare Concession Street a Hate-Free Zone.” Hamilton Spectator, March 21, 2022.


Bobby Hristova. “McMaster University athletics has clear culture of systemic anti-Black racism: report.” CBC News, October 27, 2020.

Bobby Hristova. “Ottawa provides $1.9M to help form Black business network in Windsor and Hamilton.” CBC News, August 15, 2022.


Brian Henley. “For a Time, the Klan Reared its Ugly Head,” Hamilton Spectator, June 22, 1991.


Cantall Van Raay. “Gary Warner named Hamilton’s Citizen of the Year.” McMaster Daily News, January 31, 2006.


Carmela Fragomeni. “Anti-racism centre gets city committee nod.” Hamilton Spectator, September 22, 2014.


Carmela Fragomeni. “New body formed to represent black Hamiltonians.” Hamilton Spectator, November 24, 2016.


Carmela Fragomeni. “Tiny hamlet unveils rich history of welcoming runaway slaves in the 1800s.” Hamilton Spectator, September 22, 2017.


Chantel Grillo. “Black History Month.” CHCH News, February 17, 2016.


Charles Nyasulu. “Potpourri gives to worthy causes.” Share, June 19, 1991.


Charles T. Adeyanju. (2005). Discourse of Health risks and Anti-Racial Diversity: An Analysis of Media Coverage of the Non-Ebola Panic in Hamilton. [PhD Thesis, McMaster University]. MacSphere.


Cohen, Ari A. [Director]. (2006). I Want to Be Happy: The Jackie Washington Story [Documentary]. 


Col. W. Mallory. (1902). Old Plantation Days.

Craig Campbell. “Sophia Burthen Pooley panel still under review by City of Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, July 20, 2022.


Debra Boyce. “Equity Bill ‘Triggers Navel Gazing’ Doubtful Minority Groups Argue.” Hamilton Spectator, June 26, 1992.


Dermot P. Nolan. “Time for a statue of Lincoln Alexander in downtown Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, February 22, 2021.

Desmond Brown. “Black people in Hamilton need to embrace and accept each other, historian says on Emancipation Day.” CBC News, August 3, 2022.


Eczema E. Etoroma. (1992). Blacks in Hamilton: An Analysis of Factors in Community Building. [PhD Thesis, McMaster University]. MacSphere.


Eleanor Rodney. “Martin Luther King’s dream as relevant as ever.” Hamilton Spectator, January 17, 1997.


Eleanor Wiltshire Rodney. (2002). Nurturing the Trillium: The Contributions of African and Caribbean Educators to the Development of the Hamilton-Wentworth Region. Seldom Griffin Graphics. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Emma Reilly. “Exemplary youth honoured at Potpourri awards.” Hamilton Spectator, October 15, 2017.


Emma Reilly. “His longtime church celebrates as Lincoln Alexander Day goes national this week.” Hamilton Spectator, January 18, 2015.


Evelyn Myrie. “‘One classy guy’.” Hamilton Spectator, October 26, 2012.


Evelyn Myrie. “Afro Caribbean Association marks a milestone.” Hamilton Spectator, November 14, 2019.


Evelyn Myrie. “August 1 marks the end of slavery.” Hamilton Spectator, July 27, 2011.


Evelyn Myrie. “Hamilton invited to Jamaica’s party.” Hamilton Spectator, June 14, 2012.


Evelyn Myrie. “Holland awards a sesquicentennial legacy.” Hamilton Spectator, February 9, 2011.


Evelyn Myrie. “Local events honour Obama inauguration.” Hamilton Spectator, January 15, 2009.


Evelyn Myrie. “Myrie: New hotline will not fight racism.” Hamilton Spectator, November 6, 2014.


Evelyn Myrie. “They were community and city heroes.” Hamilton Spectator, November 17, 2010.


Fallon Hewitt. “‘My burden’: What does racism look like in Hamilton?” Hamilton Spectator, July 2, 2020.


Fallon Hewitt. “‘Unity is power:’ Hundreds rally against anti-Black racism in Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, June 13, 2020.


Fallon Hewitt. “‘We will rise’: Hamilton’s Afro-Canadian Caribbean Association celebrates Emancipation Day.” Hamilton Spectator, August 2, 2020.


Fallon Hewitt. “Allegations prompts racism investigation at Hamilton’s public board.” Hamilton Spectator, August 3, 2020.


Fallon Hewitt. “Anti-hate summit offers insight into ‘difficult’ conversations on racism in Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, May 20, 2021.


Fallon Hewitt. “Group calls for defunding of Hamilton Police in wake of anti-Black racism protests.” Hamilton Spectator, June 4, 2020.


Fallon Hewitt. “Hamilton police reports drop in hate crimes, but annual report is ‘incomplete,’ advocates say.” Hamilton Spectator, April 22, 2021.


Fallon Hewitt. “Investigation finds evidence of racism and ‘efforts to silence’ voice of former student trustee within Hamilton’s public board.” Hamilton Spectator, February 3, 2021.

Fallon Hewitt. “‘Very concerned’: Black community leaders renew call for independent review into arrest of Hamilton housing activists.” Hamilton Spectator, February 20, 2022.


Gary E. French. (1978). Men of Colour: An Historical Account of the Black Settlement on Wilberforce Street and in Oro Township, Simcoe County, Ontario, 1819-1949. Kaste Books.

Graham Rockingham. “Jackie Washington, 89: Hamilton jazz icon.” Toronto Star, June 30, 2009.

Gordon Cameron. “John C. Holland Awards may have been virtual, but the quality of the winners was as real as ever.” Hamilton Spectator, June 28, 2021.

Graham Rockingham. “Hamilton’s John Ellison and Harrison Kennedy talk about anti-Black racism in advance of CHCH Canada Day special.” Hamilton Spectator, June 29, 2020.


Gurpreet Singh. “Coalition: Where are non-white firefighters?” Hamilton Spectator, February 10, 2012.


Hamilton Health Sciences. (2018). “Ona Allen is a healthcare pioneer.” Twitter.


Hamilton Public Library Local History & Archives: City of Hamilton Directories, 1853-1969. Internet Archive. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Hamilton Public Library Local History and Archives. (2009). Washington, Jackie: scrapbook. Hamilton Public Library. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Hamilton Public Library Special Collections. (1972). Ray Lewis Scrapbook. Hamilton Public Library. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Hamilton Public Library Special Collections. (1979). Lincoln Alexander: a scrapbook of clippings, 1954-. Hamilton Public Library. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Hamilton Public Library Special Collections. (1987). Stewart Memorial Church: scrapbook. Hamilton Public Library. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Hamilton Public Library Special Collections. (1994). Blacks: scrapbook. Hamilton Public Library. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]

“Canada’s first Black soldier to fall in action.” Hamilton Spectator, April 4, 2021.


Huw Morgan. “Slave’s Freedom Document Awakens Search for Roots,” Hamilton Spectator, March 15, 1979.


Jackie Washington. (1981). Jackie Washington. Hamilton, ON. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Jackie Washington. (1995). Keeping Out of Mischief / Jackie Washington [Music CD]. Borealis. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Jackie Washington. (1998). Midnight choo choo / Jackie Washington [Music CD]. Borealis. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Jackie Washington. (1999). We’ll meet again: Live in concert recordings / Jackie Washington, Mose Scarlett, Ken Whiteley [Music CD]. Borealis. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


James Strecker. (1988). Talks with Jackie Washington. Image Publishing. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Jane Mulkewich. (2006). “Little Africa – Settlement Goes Back to 1850’s.” In Margaret Houghton (ed.) Vanished Hamilton II. North Shore Publishing Inc. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Janet Lees. “Black Women Try for National Voice.” Hamilton Spectator, July 27, 1987.


Jason H. Silverman. (1980). “Kentucky, Canada, and Extradition: The Jesse Happy Case.” The Filson Club History Quarterly, 55.


Jeff Mahoney. “A family deserving of celebration.” Hamilton Spectator, July 13, 2012.


Jeff Mahoney. “Award named for Vince Morgan honours his community-building.” Hamilton Spectator, February 24, 2012.


Jeff Mahoney. “Hamilton residents marching for Black lives, because the work was left unfinished.” Hamilton Spectator, July 25, 2020.


Jeff Mahoney. “Hamilton’s Anita Isaac: A wonderful life with a secret revealed at the end.” Hamilton Spectator, May 23, 2020.


Jeff Mahoney. “It wasn’t taught in school. Curtis Bell learned about Hamilton’s Black History around the table.” Hamilton Spectator, May 29, 2021.


Jeff Mahoney. “MAHONEY: Trail-blazing doctor overcame several obstacles.” Hamilton Spectator, October 30, 2013.

Jeff Mahoney. “Youth meets age at ACCA’s Black History Month 2022.” Hamilton Spectator, February 14, 2022.


Jennifer Vo. (2020). “Shine a light - Stewart Memorial turns 175.” H Magazine.


Jermain W. Loguen. (1859). The Rev. J. W. Loguen, as a Slave and as a Freeman: A Narrative of Real Life. J. G. K. Truair & Co., Stereotypers and Printers. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Jessie Louise Beattie. (1956). John Christie Holland: Man of the Year. Ryerson.


Joanna Frketich. “‘Nothing happened’: Vaccines took too long to get to Hamilton’s racialized communities.” Hamilton Spectator, April 26, 2021.


John Cooper. (1999). Shadow Running: Ray Lewis, Canadian Railway Porter & Olympic Athlete. Umbrella Press. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


John Cooper. (2002). Rapid Ray: The Story of Ray Lewis. Tundra Books. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


John Rietl. “Matthew Green: What it means to be Hamilton’s 1st black city councillor.” CBC News, February 7, 2015.


Johnson, Stephen. (2019). “A Cross-Burning on Hamilton Mountain.” Gathering Partnerships.


Jon Wells. “‘Suffering and joy’ invoked at Hamilton Black History Month launch.” Hamilton Spectator, January 31, 2021.


Jon Wells. “A life well lived: Hamilton’s Lincoln Alexander exits the stage at 90.” Hamilton Spectator, October 20, 2012.


Jon Wells. “Black history in Hamilton: A promised land of hope and struggle.” Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2021.


Jon Wells. “Black history in Hamilton: A tour.” Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2021.


Jon Wells. “Community ‘icon’ Gary Warner receives honorary degree; confronted racism in Hamilton 53 years ago.” Hamilton Spectator, November 20, 2020.


Jon Wells. “Pioneering Hamilton educator and community leader Eleanor Rodney dies.” Hamilton Spectator, September 19, 2020.


Jon Wells. “Voices of the present on Hamilton’s Black history.” Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2021.


Kate Adach. “A video tour of fugitive slave life in Hamilton.” CBC News, July 13, 2012.


Kate McCullough, Teviah Moro & Sebastian Bron. “‘Defund the police’ strikes outside Hamilton City Hall.” Hamilton Spectator, July 23, 2020.


Kate McCullough. “‘No justice, no peace, no racist police’: Thousands join Hamilton Black Friday rally.” Hamilton Spectator, June 12, 2020.


Kate McCullough. “Hamilton clinic helps newcomers access health care.” Hamilton Spectator, August 5, 2020.


Kate McCullough. “McMaster University to conduct external review following reports of anti-Black racism.” Hamilton Spectator, July 18, 2020.


Kate McCullough. “New program aims to support mental health of Black and racialized youth.” Hamilton Spectator, March 4, 2021.


Kate McCullough. “St. Thomas More ‘Knights’ tackle racism with new student-run committee.” Hamilton Spectator, January 22, 2021.

Kathy Yanchus. “Exploring Halton’s Black history.” Hamilton Spectator, July 25, 2022.

Katrina Clarke. “Black community leaders call for charges to be dropped against six affordable housing advocates.” Hamilton Spectator, December 1, 2021.


Katrina Clarke. “Author of new activity book about Black Hamiltonians hopes it fills curriculum void.” Hamilton Spectator, July 31, 2021.

Katrina Clarke. “Encampment protestor speaks out after SIU drops probe.” Hamilton Spectator, January 18, 2022.


Katrina Clarke. “Four outbreaks over in Hamilton, anti-hate group calls on city to start tracking race-based data.” Hamilton Spectator, May 7, 2020.


Katrina Clarke. “Hamilton trustees asked one of their own to resign. What now?” Hamilton Spectator, March 9, 2021.


Katrina Clarke. “HWDSB trustee racism scandal: Everything you need to know about Hamilton public school board’s racism probe.” Hamilton Spectator, February 10, 2021.


Katrina Clarke. “HWDSB trustees Buck and Archer respond to boards third-party racism probe.” Hamilton Spectator, March 15, 2021.


Katrina Clarke. “Inside the report: Breaking down what the four HWDSB trustees are accused of doing.” Hamilton Spectator, February 22, 2021.


Katrina Clarke. “Students say schools don’t need police, already have supports in place.” Hamilton Spectator, June 12, 2020.


KC Hoard. “Hamilton artist Esmaa Mohamoud hopes new exhibition inspires conversations about race.” Hamilton Spectator, April 24, 2021.


KC Hoard. “Hamilton’s first BIPOC film festival premiering in May at The Westdale theatre.” Hamilton Spectator, March 15, 2021.


Kelly Bennett. “Hamilton police disproportionately stop and question black people.” CBC News, July 23, 2015.


Kelly Bennett. “The downtown church where former slaves found refuge in Hamilton.” CBC News, July 31, 2016.


Ken Stone. “Closed ranks?” Hamilton Spectator, February 16, 2011.


Kevin Gonci. “Hamilton’s public school board needs systemic change.” Hamilton Spectator, March 16, 2021.


Kevin Werner. “Celebrate Emancipation with the Afro-Canadian Caribbean Association of Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, July 28, 2021.

Kojo Damptey. “Hamilton mayor failing racialized citizens.” Hamilton Spectator, January 9, 2022.


Kristin McLaren. “‘We had no desire to be set apart’: Forced Segregation of Black Students in Canada West Public Schools and Myths of British Egalitarianism.” Social History, 37(73), 27-50.

Laura Clementson. “‘It was inspiring’: Hamilton kids celebrate black culture at Black Panther screening.” CBC News, March 2, 2018.


Lincoln M. Alexander. (1989). Speech from the throne: highlights and address of the Honourable Lincoln M. Alexander, Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Ontario on the opening of the Second Session of the Thirty-fourth Parliament, April 25, 1989. Government of Ontario. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Lincoln M. Alexander. (2006). “Go To School, You’re A Little Black Boy”: The Honourable Lincoln M. Alexander: A Memoir. Dundurn Press. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Lincoln M. Alexander. [Lincoln Alexander, M.P. report]. Hamilton, ON. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Local History & Archives: Hamilton Public Library. Flickr.


Local History & Archives: Historical Images. Hamilton Public Library.


Local History & Archives. Hamilton Public Library.


Lucy El-Sherif. “This is what anti-racism change looks like.” Hamilton Spectator, August 7, 2020.

Mackenzie Leask. (1962). “Jesse Happy, a Fugitive Slave from Kentucky.” Ontario History, 54(2), 87-98.


Maria Iqbal. “Hamilton opens vaccines to racialized residents over 18 in hot spots - but clinic books up in matter of hours.” Hamilton Spectator, April 23, 2021.

Maroussia Hajdukowski-Ahmed, Terri Bedminster, Sue Grafe. (2017). Refuge Hamilton Centre for Newcomer Health (HCNH): Achieving Better in Canada. In Civil Society Engagement (pp. 67-85).


Mark McNeil. “A glimpse of slavery through a very old coin.” Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2012.


Mark McNeil. “Author chronicles Hamilton Mountain’s ‘Little Africa’.” Hamilton Spectator, February 1, 2013.


Mark McNeil. “Hamilton teen first Canadian black soldier to die in First World War.” Hamilton Spectator, May 12, 2015.


Mark McNeil. “Hamilton’s heritage: 2020 was a year for the history books.” Hamilton Spectator, January 4, 2021.


Mark McNeil. “One of the first non-natives in area was a slave.” Hamilton Spectator, July 30, 2013.

Mark McNeil. “Paola Brown was the ‘great-grandfather’ of Black activism in Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, February 7, 2022.


Mark McNeil. “Remembering Emancipation at Griffin House.” Hamilton Spectator, August 2, 2016.


Mark McNeil. “The Legend of the Washingtons,” Hamilton Spectator, March 28, 1987.


Mark McNeil. “Uncovering stories is a family affair.” Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2016.

Mark Newman. “‘The Journey, Emancipation to Liberation’ by Israel Crooks comes to Concession Street.” Hamilton Spectator, May 10, 2022.

Mark Newman. “Bringing Little Africa back to life on Hamilton Mountain.” Hamilton Spectator, August 17, 2021.


Matthew Kwong & Daniel Nolan. “Promoter of Peace, Citizen of the Year: Gary Warner,” Hamilton Spectator, January 31, 2006.


Matthew Van Dongen. “Hamilton public board ends controversial cops-in-schools program.” Hamilton Spectator, June 22, 2020.


Matthew Van Dongen. “Hamilton tears down ‘defund’ encampment in front of city hall.” Hamilton Spectator, November 30, 2020.


Matthew Van Dongen. “Push to end cops-in-schools shifts to Hamitlon’s Catholic board.” Hamilton Spectator, June 24, 2020.


Maxine Carter. “Committee Against Racism advises, advocates.” Hamilton Spectator, February 17, 2011.


Melissa Zielke. (2002). “Go Down Moses: The Griffin House and the Continuing Struggle to Preserve, Interpret and Exhibit Black History.” Material History Review, 55, 41-52.

Mike Pearson. “McMaster University grad launches Hamilton Black History Database.” Hamilton Spectator, February 21, 2022.


Natalie Paddon. “Emancipation Day marked alongside Canada’s 150th.” Hamilton Spectator, August 7, 2017.


Natalie Paddon. “PASSAGES: Longtime educator and community activist helped marginalized population.” Hamilton Spectator, October 30, 2016.


Natasha Henry & Adrienne Shadd. (2003). “...and still I rise:” A History of Black Workers in Ontario, 1900 to Present. Workers Arts and Heritage Centre.


Neville Nunes. “Vigilance Needed to Keep Black History Central.” Hamilton Spectator, February 21, 1997.


Nicole O’Reilly. “Anti-racism protestors march down York Boulevard, rally at Hamilton City Hall.” Hamilton Spectator, June 28, 2020.


Paola Brown. (1851). Address Intended to Be Delivered in the City Hall, Hamilton, February 7, 1851, on the Subject of Slavery. Hamilton.


Park History Program. (2000). “The Hill Family in Slavery, Freedom, & Transition.” In Exploring a Common Past: Researching and Interpreting the Underground Railroad. National Park Service.


Petition to the “People of Colour” of Hamilton to the Governor General protesting the practice of segregated schooling for Black children, October 15, 1843. Archives of Ontario.


Richard Douglass-Chin. “Trinidad’s influence worth celebrating.” Hamilton Spectator, August 25, 2012.

Richard Leitner. “Hamilton public school board to create ‘overdue’ anti-Black racism policy.” Hamilton Spectator, June 2, 2021.

Ric Taylor. “Life of Brian.” VIEW, May 25, 2019.

Ritika Dubey. “Feds invest $1.9M to support Black-led businesses in Hamilton and Windsor.” Hamilton Spectator, August 17, 2022.

Ritika Dubey. “Hamilton summer camp preparing Black kids to return to school with confidence.” Toronto Star, August 24, 2022.


Samantha Craggs. “Black Lives Matter activists take list of demands to Hamilton agencies.” CBC News, June 2, 2020.


Samantha Craggs. “Matthew Green on race, power, politics and more as Hamilton’s 1st black city councillor.” CBC News, November 6, 2018.


Samantha Craggs. “Tribunal rejects black councillor’s claim Hamilton police stop was racial profiling.” CBC News, April 26, 2018.


Sandi Bell. “No Hate in the Hammer: Addressing hate in Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, May 15, 2021.


Sarah Adjekum. “Lessons for 2021: What COVID-19 taught us about BIPOC displacement.” Hamilton Spectator, January 4, 2021.


Scott Radley. “Hamilton sprinter’s legend will live on at the Ray Lewis Track and Field Centre.” Hamilton Spectator, August 22, 2018.


Scott Radley. “Review into McMaster athletics finds culture of systemic anti-Black racism.” Hamilton Spectator, October 27, 2020.


Scott, Tara C. “how we came to be: the legacy of mary roth + wesley rhodes.” dhamma for mama*.


Sebastian Bron. “Investigation launched into racism allegations at Hamilton’s public school board.” Hamilton Spectator, August 17, 2020.


Sebastian Bron. “St. Joe’s launches critical mental health program for Black youth.” Hamilton Spectator, October 17, 2020.


Sheryl Nadler. “WhoWhatWear: Marlene Thomas-Osbourne.” Hamilton Spectator, February 16, 2017.


Simon Mach. “ACNOH: ‘Diverse but together’.” Hamilton Spectator, February 24, 2011.


Simon T. Mach. “Who has a place in Black History Month?” Hamilton Spectator, February 4, 2013.


Songs sung by the famous Canadian Jubilee Singers, the Royal Paragon Male Quartette, and Imperial Orchestra: Five Years’ Tour of the United States. (188?). Duncan Lith Co.


Steve Buist. “Hamilton fire department will soon have just two Black full-time firefighters as service struggles with lack of diversity.” Hamilton Spectator, October 28, 2020.


Steve Buist. “Holland award winners ‘aren’t going to be voiceless’.” Hamilton Spectator, February 26, 2017.


Steve Milton. “Gridiron Underground makes it to air.” Hamilton Spectator, December 11, 2017.

Susan Clairmont. “Hamilton activist Sarah Jama: ‘I make people feel uncomfortable sometimes’.” Hamilton Spectator, April 1, 2022.


Susan Clairmont. “Life comes full circle for police chaplain.” Hamilton Spectator, January 5, 2009.


Suzanne Bourret. “Honouring those people who make our community unique: Eleanor Rodney.” Hamilton Spectator, September 20, 1999.


Sylvia Thomas. “Hamilton’s First African-Caribbean Heritage Class.” Hamilton Spectator, December 19, 1991.


Teri Percoskie. “Focus on the future at Holland/Howard reunion.” Hamilton Spectator, July 16, 2012.


Teviah Moro & Kate McCullough. “Longtime Hamilton social-service leader Denise Brooks mourned.” Hamilton Spectator, July 29, 2020.


Teviah Moro & Sebastian Bron. “Hamilton councillor concerned about police intimidation as defund protestors hunker down.” Hamilton Spectator, November 25, 2020.


Teviah Moro. “City plants ‘seed of regrowth’ for Hamilton Anti-Racism Resource Centre.” Hamilton Spectator, February 18, 2021.


Teviah Moro. “COVID-19: Hamilton public health urges precautions during protests.” Hamilton Spectator, June 2, 2020.


Teviah Moro. “Evelyn Myrie to guide reboot of Hamilton Anti-racism Resource Centre.” Hamilton Spectator, September 24, 2020.


Teviah Moro. “Gore Park rally in solidarity with U.S. protests. But ‘racism is everywhere,’ attendees say, including Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, June 1, 2020.


Teviah Moro. “Racist backlash to Hamilton’s effort to vaccinate Black and racialized residents condemned.” Hamilton Spectator, April 29, 2021.


The Corporation of the City of Hamilton. (1993). By-Law No. 93- 089 To Designate Land Located at Municipal No. 114 John Street North As Property of Historic and Architectural Value and Interest.


The Honourable Lincoln M. Alexander, P.C., Q.C., the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario and Mrs. Yvonne Alexander. (1985). Hamilton, ON. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -]


Tracy Warren. (2008). Imagining, Remembering, Forgetting: Emancipation Day Celebrations in Hamilton-Niagara 1834-2008. [unpublished paper for Dr. H. V. Nelles, McMaster University].


Wade Hemsworth. “Educator, community activist: Gary Warner’s work is part of “an integrated life.” McMaster Daily News, November 18, 2020.


William Renwick Riddell. (1930). “A Petition, Discovered by the Honourable William Renwick Riddell, Justice of Appeal, Ontario, Canada.” Journal of Negro History, 15(1), 115-16.


William Still. The Underground Railroad: A Record of Facts, Authentic Narrative, Letters, & C., Narrating the Hardships, Hair-breadth Escapes and Death Struggles of the Slaves in their Efforts of Freedom as Related by Themselves and Others, or Witnessed by the Author; Together with Sketches of Some of the Largest Stockholders, and Most Liberal Aiders and Advisers, of the Road. Porter & Coates.


Workers Arts and Heritage Centre. “African Canadian Workers: From 1900 to the Second World War.” (2007). The Virtual Museum of Canada.

Workers Arts and Heritage Centre. The Souls of Black Folk: Hamilton’s Stewart Memorial Community. Virtual Museum of Canada.

The full undivided list of every resource located in the Hamilton Black History Database in alphabetical order.

Round Library

Full List of Resources

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