Breaking
Down Barriers

(1950s-1990s)

bernie custis.jfif

Masses of Caribbean and African immigrants move into Hamilton neighbourhoods, community leaders develop frameworks to better support our youth, and local Hamiltonians make great strides in Black Canadian representation in education, politics, and the arts.

NOTE: Resources containing hyperlinks to online materials are highlighted in Bold font

“About Us.” A.C.C.P.I. Caribbean Potpourri.

 

“Barbers, Oscar Peterson & Incidents of Racism in Hamilton.” Workers’ City.

“Bernie Custis: Football Player.” (2011). Ticats.

 

“Black Youth Achievements of Hamilton and Region.” (1995). The B.Y.A. Newsletter. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C18130]

 

“Black Youth Achievements of Hamilton and Region.” (1996). Harmony. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C18325]

 

“Eleanor Wiltshire-Rodney, President & Founder.” A.C.C.P.I. Caribbean Potpourri.

 

“Former Hamilton Station (Canadian National) National Historic Site of Canada.” Parks Canada.

 

“Gallery.” Afro Canadian Caribbean Association.

 

“Hamilton Police Historical Society & Museum - Black History.” (2021). Facebook.

 

“Hamilton school to be named after Bernie Custis, pro football’s 1st black starting QB.” CBC News, September 18, 2018.

 

“Jackie Washington.” (2011) Canadian Encyclopedia.

 

“Lincoln MacCauley Alexander.” (2013). Canadian Encyclopedia.

 

[100huntley]. (2012). Lincoln Alexander--Part of our series for Black History Month. [Video]. YouTube.

 

[ArchivesofOntario]. (2020). Lincoln M. Alexander: The Time Has Come to Celebrate (2020). [Video]. YouTube.

 

[CHCHTelevision]. (2012). CHCH - Lincoln M. Alexander Elected to Parliament 1968. [Video]. YouTube.

 

[CHCHTelevision]. (2012). Remembering Lincoln Alexander - CHCH. [Video]. YouTube.

 

[GitarCarl]. (2010). Jackie Washington - 1991 Toronto pt 1 - When The Sun Goes Down. [Video]. YouTube.

 

[GitarCarl]. (2010). Jackie Washington - 1991 Toronto pt 2 - The Best of Everything. [Video]. YouTube.

 

[GitarCarl]. (2010). Jackie Washington - 1991 Toronto pt 3 - Roll Me Baby. [Video]. YouTube.

 

[GitarCarl]. (2010). Jackie Washington - 1991 Toronto pt 4 - Young Man’s Blues. [Video]. YouTube.

 

[UNILEARNAL]. (2020). Akehil | 28 Moments of Black Canadian History | Lincoln Alexander. [Video]. YouTube.

 

A. Jeffers Toby, ed. (1991). Hamilton: A Black Perspective. A History of Blacks and their Contribution. Hamilton: Afro Canadian Caribbean Association of Hamilton and District. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue -https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C10522]

 

Aaron Parry. (2021). Deeply Rooted: A Hamilton Black History Activity Book. Afro Canadian Caribbean Association.

 

Adrienne Shadd. (2010). The Journey From Tollgate to Parkway: African Canadians in Hamilton. Dundurn Press. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C155096]

 

An Evening with Lincoln Alexander: in grateful recognition to a citizen of Hamilton who has served us well. Hamilton, ON. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C37377]

 

Archives: Jackie Washington. McMaster Libraries.

 

Cohen, Ari A. [Director]. (2006). I Want to Be Happy: The Jackie Washington Story [Documentary]. 

 

Eczema E. Etoroma. (1992). Blacks in Hamilton: An Analysis of Factors in Community Building. [PhD Thesis, McMaster University]. MacSphere.

 

Eleanor Wiltshire Rodney. (2002). Nurturing the Trillium: The Contributions of African and Caribbean Educators to the Development of the Hamilton-Wentworth Region. Seldom Griffin Graphics. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C34332]

 

Hamilton Health Sciences. (2018). “Ona Allen is a healthcare pioneer.” Twitter.

 

Hamilton Public Library Local History & Archives: City of Hamilton Directories, 1853-1969. Internet Archive. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://archive.org/details/hamiltonpubliclibrary-localhistory?sort=-publicdate]

 

Hamilton Public Library Local History and Archives. (2009). Washington, Jackie: scrapbook. Hamilton Public Library. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C436059]

 

Hamilton Public Library Special Collections. (1972). Ray Lewis Scrapbook. Hamilton Public Library. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C32360]

 

Hamilton Public Library Special Collections. (1979). Lincoln Alexander: a scrapbook of clippings, 1954-. Hamilton Public Library. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C807]

 

Hamilton Public Library Special Collections. (1987). Stewart Memorial Church: scrapbook. Hamilton Public Library. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C6073]

 

Hamilton Public Library Special Collections. (1994). Blacks: scrapbook. Hamilton Public Library. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C11932]

 

Jackie Washington. (1981). Jackie Washington. Hamilton, ON. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C2413]

 

Jackie Washington. (1995). Keeping Out of Mischief / Jackie Washington [Music CD]. Borealis. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C492760]

 

Jackie Washington. (1998). Midnight choo choo / Jackie Washington [Music CD]. Borealis. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C485904]

 

Jackie Washington. (1999). We’ll meet again: Live in concert recordings / Jackie Washington, Mose Scarlett, Ken Whiteley [Music CD]. Borealis. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C492761]

 

James Strecker. (1988). Talks with Jackie Washington. Image Publishing. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C7669]

 

Lincoln M. Alexander. (1989). Speech from the throne: highlights and address of the Honourable Lincoln M. Alexander, Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Ontario on the opening of the Second Session of the Thirty-fourth Parliament, April 25, 1989. Government of Ontario. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C20611]

 

Lincoln M. Alexander. (2006). “Go To School, You’re A Little Black Boy”: The Honourable Lincoln M. Alexander: A Memoir. Dundurn Press. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C411649]

 

Lincoln M. Alexander. [Lincoln Alexander, M.P. report]. Hamilton, ON. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C18440]

 

Local History & Archives Hamilton Public Library. Flickr.

 

Local History & Archives: Historical Images. Hamilton Public Library.

 

Local History & Archives. Hamilton Public Library.

 

Natasha Henry & Adrienne Shadd. (2003). “...and still I rise:” A History of Black Workers in Ontario, 1900 to Present. Workers Arts and Heritage Centre.

 

The Corporation of the City of Hamilton. (1993). By-Law No. 93- 089 To Designate Land Located at Municipal No. 114 John Street North As Property of Historic and Architectural Value and Interest.

 

The Honourable Lincoln M. Alexander, P.C., Q.C., the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario and Mrs. Yvonne Alexander. (1985). Hamilton, ON. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C37378]

Workers Arts and Heritage Centre. The Souls of Black Folk: Hamilton’s Stewart Memorial Community. Virtual Museum of Canada.

Local Newspaper Articles (Chronological)

*Physical Hamilton Spectator articles may be found in the Hamilton Public Library archives. More info: https://lha.hpl.ca/articles/hamilton-spectator-collection-0

“Groups Support Y.W.C.A. in Anti-Discrimination.” Hamilton Spectator, February 23, 1950.

 

“Refused Haircut Here, Famed Pianist Charges: Oscar Peterson Makes Complaint; Warrender Seeks Test of By-Law.” Hamilton Spectator, May 5, 1951.

 

“Barber Protests Publicity in Noted Pianist Incident: Employees Not Qualified to Cut Negro’s Hair, Mayor is Told.” Hamilton Spectator, May 7, 1951.

 

“No Discrimination’ Clause Clear, Board to be Advised.” Hamilton Spectator, May 7, 1951.

 

“Smith’s Sister Ran Toll-gate.” Hamilton Spectator, June 4, 1955.

 

“A Flashback to 1930: The Klan’s March Through Oakville.” Hamilton Spectator, December 26, 1960.

 

“Fight for Freedom.” Hamilton Spectator, August 17, 1963.

 

“Blacks to Study if Centre Wanted.” Hamilton Spectator, February 15, 1972.

 

Huw Morgan. “Slave’s Freedom Document Awakens Search for Roots,” Hamilton Spectator, March 15, 1979.

 

“Fleeing Slaves Found Refuge in ‘Little Africa’ on Mountain.” Hamilton Spectator, 25 October 1984.

 

Mark McNeil. “The Legend of the Washingtons,” Hamilton Spectator, March 28, 1987.

 

Janet Lees. “Black Women Try for National Voice.” Hamilton Spectator, July 27, 1987.

 

“History of Blacks in Area Said Thin.” Hamilton Spectator, February 6, 1989.

 

Charles Nyasulu. “Potpourri gives to worthy causes.” Share, June 19, 1991.

 

Brian Henley. “For a Time, the Klan Reared its Ugly Head,” Hamilton Spectator, June 22, 1991.

 

Sylvia Thomas. “Hamilton’s First African-Caribbean Heritage Class.” Hamilton Spectator, December 19, 1991.

 

Debra Boyce. “Equity Bill ‘Triggers Navel Gazing’ Doubtful Minority Groups Argue.” Hamilton Spectator, June 26, 1992.

 

“Outstanding students honoured.” Hamilton Spectator, November 4, 1996.

 

Eleanor Rodney. “Martin Luther King’s dream as relevant as ever.” Hamilton Spectator, January 17, 1997.

 

Neville Nunes. “Vigilance Needed to Keep Black History Central.” Hamilton Spectator, February 21, 1997.

 

“Setting fine examples: African-Caribbean group honours youth who excel at school and in the community.” Hamilton Spectator, October 20, 1997.


Suzanne Bourret. “Honouring those people who make our community unique: Eleanor Rodney.” Hamilton Spectator, September 20, 1999.