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A LIFE Article dedicated to community leader and educator Eleanor Rodney (September 20, 1999).

NOTE: Resources containing hyperlinks to online materials are highlighted in Bold font

*Physical Hamilton Spectator articles may be found in the Hamilton Public Library archives. More info:

“Local and Miscellaneous Items - Emancipation.” Daily Spectator and Journal of Commerce, August 3, 1853.


“Celebration a Disgraceful Scene.” Hamilton Herald, August 4, 1853.


“Celebrations of the Anniversary of Emancipation.” Daily Spectator and Journal of Commerce, August 2, 1859.


“An English Opinion of the ‘Ambitious City’.” Hamilton Spectator, October 20, 1860.


“An Outrage Upon Society: Petition From the Coloured Citizens of Hamilton.” Hamilton Evening Times, October 23, 1866.


“A Whitewashing Proceeding.” Hamilton Evening Times, October 27, 1866.


“The New Barber Shop.” Hamilton Spectator, November 1, 1875.


“The Sun Do Move: Astronomical Opinions of Prof. Johnson of Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, January 10, 1882.


“The Sun Do Move: Reconstruction of the Sciences of Geography and Astronomy by a Hamilton Preacher.” Hamilton Spectator, May 8, 1882.


“Razors in the Air: Prof. Gant’s Barber Shop Bombarded.” Hamilton Spectator, February 12, 1883.

“The British Lion.” Hamilton Spectator, October 12, 1883.


“Doomed to Destruction: The Earth to Come to and End in Fifty Years - A Modern Edition of Mother Shipton.” Hamilton Spectator, November 2, 1883.


“The Walls of a City: A Chat With a Toll-Gate Keeper About Tolls.” Hamilton Spectator, January 23, 1884.


“Colored Oddfellows.” Hamilton Spectator, August 28, 1884.


“Astronomical Johnson.” Hamilton Spectator, August 29, 1884.


“Prof. Gant’s Say.” Hamilton Spectator, October 23, 1884.


“Gant’s Ultimatum.” Hamilton Spectator, October 24, 1884.


“In a New Role: Prof. and Col. C.A. Johnson Announces a Startling Machine.” Hamilton Spectator, July 20, 1885.


“On Earthquakes: Fourth Lecture by the Rev. C. Astronomical Johnson.” Hamilton Spectator, August 6, 1887.


“A Joke on Astronomical Johnson.” Hamilton Spectator, August 23, 1887.


“Market, Fire, Police: the Colored Citizens Present Their Rightful Claims.” Hamilton Herald, December 25, 1889.


“Colored Brigade.” Hamilton Herald, December 26, 1889.


“The Proposed Brigade: It is Opposed by Prof. Gant, Who Gives His Reasons.” Hamilton Herald, December 26, 1889.


“What the Firemen Think, A Mean Insinuation Against the Colored Brethren’s Staying Powers.” Hamilton Herald, December 26, 1889.


“The Colored Fire Brigade. A Corps of Sixteen Men Suggested for the Job.” Hamilton Herald, December 27, 1889.


“The Colored Fire Brigade: Chief Aitchison Declines to GIve an Opinion on the Subject.” Hamilton Herald, December 28, 1889.


“Her Majesty’s Loyal Negroes: Editor Johnson Assures the Queen of their Unswerving Devotion.” Hamilton Herald, February 12, 1890.


“Brer Johnson’s Latest Full Text of His Remarkable Address to Sir John Macdonald.” Hamilton Spectator, February 13, 1890.


“John and Little Oscar: Professor Gant the Plaintiff in an Amusing Case.” Hamilton Herald, July 28, 1890.


“Prof. Gant Makes a Call: He Conveys the Regards of the Coloured Citizens to Lord Aberdeen.” Hamilton Spectator,  September 19, 1890.


“Professor Jesse Gant: a Man Whose Genius is Many-Sided.” Hamilton Herald, November 2, 1895.


“Ended in a Free Fight: Watermelons in the Air at Last Night’s Dundurn Show.” Hamilton Spectator, August 20, 1896.


“C. Astronomical Johnson Talks Wisdom to the Benighted People of St. Kitts.” Hamilton Spectator, March 6, 1897.


“Mr. Johnson Mops the Floor with the Spectator.” Hamilton Spectator, March 8, 1897.

“Escaped from Slavery: Interesting Incident in the Life History of a Man Who Still Resides in Hamilton.” Hamilton Herald, August 23, 1902.

“Henry Criel Dead: Well-Known Citizen Passes Peacefully to the Great Beyond.” Hamilton Spectator, October 17, 1904.

“Prof. Gant Dead: Best Known Colored Resident of City Passes Away.” Hamilton Herald, January 18, 1905.

“Professor Gant Dead: Well-known Barber Succumbed to Bright’s Disease This Morning.” Hamilton Spectator, January 18, 1905.

“Bicycle Thief Got One Year: Coloured Youth, With a Past, Sent to Central Prison by Police Magistrate.” Hamilton Herald, August 24, 1907.

“Mrs. J. Diggs has Joined the Great Majority.” Hamilton Herald, November 20, 1919.

“Ku, Klux, Klan Rears Head in City of Hamilton with 32 Initiations.” Toronto Globe, November 19, 1924.

“Ladies Klan Would March to City Hall: Mrs. E. Miller Declares K.K.K. Has 1000 Members Here.” Hamilton Herald, March 20, 1925.

“Ku Klux Klan: Crusaders Have No Feeling Towards the Order.” Hamilton Spectator, March 27, 1925.

“Klan Organizing in this District.” Hamilton Spectator, March 1, 1930.

“Johnson Claims Indian Descent: No Negro Blood in Him, Victim States.” Hamilton Spectator, February 18, 1925.

“G. Morton Dead: He Was Letter Carrier and on Local Staff for 36 Years.” Hamilton Herald, August 20, 1927.

“Thomas J. Holland is Called to Rest: Was Last Surviving Member of the Noted O’Bannyon (sic) Jubilee Singers.” Hamilton Herald, June 11, 1928.

“Klansmen of Hamilton Defend Their Conduct in ‘Raid’ at Oakville.” Toronto Globe, March 3, 1930.

“Former Coloured Colony on Mount Dubbed Little Africa.” Hamilton Spectator, 15 July 1936.

“Coloured Refugees Formed Settlement.” Hamilton Spectator, 15 July 1946.


“States Racial Prejudice Here Hurts Negroes.” Hamilton Spectator, January 16, 1937.

“Mission School, Frame Church, Toll Gates.” Hamilton Spectator, 15 November 1947.

“Negro Veteran Denied Admission to Dundurn Dance.” Hamilton Spectator, July 7, 1948.

“Racial Discrimination Motion Lost in Council.” Hamilton Spectator, July 13, 1948.

“Groups Support Y.W.C.A. in Anti-Discrimination.” Hamilton Spectator, February 23, 1950.


“Refused Haircut Here, Famed Pianist Charges: Oscar Peterson Makes Complaint; Warrender Seeks Test of By-Law.” Hamilton Spectator, May 5, 1951.


“Barber Protests Publicity in Noted Pianist Incident: Employees Not Qualified to Cut Negro’s Hair, Mayor is Told.” Hamilton Spectator, May 7, 1951.


“No Discrimination’ Clause Clear, Board to be Advised.” Hamilton Spectator, May 7, 1951.


“Smith’s Sister Ran Toll-gate.” Hamilton Spectator, June 4, 1955.


“A Flashback to 1930: The Klan’s March Through Oakville.” Hamilton Spectator, December 26, 1960.


“Fight for Freedom.” Hamilton Spectator, August 17, 1963.


“Blacks to Study if Centre Wanted.” Hamilton Spectator, February 15, 1972.


Huw Morgan. “Slave’s Freedom Document Awakens Search for Roots,” Hamilton Spectator, March 15, 1979.


“Fleeing Slaves Found Refuge in ‘Little Africa’ on Mountain.” Hamilton Spectator, 25 October 1984.


Mark McNeil. “The Legend of the Washingtons,” Hamilton Spectator, March 28, 1987.


Janet Lees. “Black Women Try for National Voice.” Hamilton Spectator, July 27, 1987.


“History of Blacks in Area Said Thin.” Hamilton Spectator, February 6, 1989.


Charles Nyasulu. “Potpourri gives to worthy causes.” Share, June 19, 1991.


Brian Henley. “For a Time, the Klan Reared its Ugly Head,” Hamilton Spectator, June 22, 1991.


Sylvia Thomas. “Hamilton’s First African-Caribbean Heritage Class.” Hamilton Spectator, December 19, 1991.


Debra Boyce. “Equity Bill ‘Triggers Navel Gazing’ Doubtful Minority Groups Argue.” Hamilton Spectator, June 26, 1992.


“Outstanding students honoured.” Hamilton Spectator, November 4, 1996.


Eleanor Rodney. “Martin Luther King’s dream as relevant as ever.” Hamilton Spectator, January 17, 1997.


Neville Nunes. “Vigilance Needed to Keep Black History Central.” Hamilton Spectator, February 21, 1997.


“Setting fine examples: African-Caribbean group honours youth who excel at school and in the community.” Hamilton Spectator, October 20, 1997.

Suzanne Bourret. “Honouring those people who make our community unique: Eleanor Rodney.” Hamilton Spectator, September 20, 1999.

“Hamilton Pot Pourri to benefit ill children.” The Caribbean Camera, May 29, 2003.


“Hamilton’s Caribbean Potpourri marks 21 years.” 2005.


Cantall Van Raay. “Gary Warner named Hamilton’s Citizen of the Year.” McMaster Daily News, January 31, 2006.


Matthew Kwong & Daniel Nolan. “Promoter of Peace, Citizen of the Year: Gary Warner,” Hamilton Spectator, January 31, 2006.

“Racial slur rocks liberal candidate.”, August 8, 2007.


“Acclaimed … for making a difference.” Hamilton Spectator, February 4, 2008.


“Black history deserves to be celebrated.” Hamilton Spectator, February 28, 2008.


“Let’s help young people thrive.” Hamilton Spectator, April 10, 2008.


“Obama’s victory is history in the making.” Hamilton Spectator, June 5, 2008.


“Mentorship of youth the way to success.” Hamilton Spectator, July 17, 2008.


“Black history part of Canada’s story.” Hamilton Spectator, August 5, 2008.


Susan Clairmont. “Life comes full circle for police chaplain.” Hamilton Spectator, January 5, 2009.


Evelyn Myrie. “Local events honour Obama inauguration.” Hamilton Spectator, January 15, 2009.


Graham Rockingham. “Jackie Washington, 89: Hamilton jazz icon.” Toronto Star, June 30, 2009.

“Welcoming the changing face of Canada.” Hamilton Spectator, October 29, 2009.


“A community’s shining light.” Hamilton Spectator, February 17, 2010.

“African depictions at issue.” Hamilton Spectator, June 14, 2010.


“End of slavery marked with the ‘blessing’ of music.” Hamilton Spectator, August 3, 2010.


“Stewart Memorial marks 175 years.” Hamilton Spectator, August 16, 2010.


Evelyn Myrie. “They were community and city heroes.” Hamilton Spectator, November 17, 2010.


“Black community celebrates King’s dream.” Hamilton Spectator, January 17, 2011.


“Recognizing success at John C. Holland awards.” Hamilton Spectator, February 6, 2011.


“It’s Black History Month.” Hamilton Spectator, February 7, 2011.


Evelyn Myrie. “Holland awards a sesquicentennial legacy.” Hamilton Spectator, February 9, 2011.


Ken Stone. “Closed ranks?” Hamilton Spectator, February 16, 2011.


Maxine Carter. “Committee Against Racism advises, advocates.” Hamilton Spectator, February 17, 2011.


Simon Mach. “ACNOH: ‘Diverse but together’.” Hamilton Spectator, February 24, 2011.


Evelyn Myrie. “August 1 marks the end of slavery.” Hamilton Spectator, July 27, 2011.


“Bringing Emancipation history into the future.” Hamilton Spectator, August 2, 2011.


“Afro-Caribbean community celebrates their youth.” Hamilton Spectator, October 26, 2011.


“Rev. John C. Holland Awards turn a Sweet sixteen.” Hamilton Spectator, February 6, 2012.


Gurpreet Singh. “Coalition: Where are non-white firefighters?” Hamilton Spectator, February 10, 2012.


Mark McNeil. “A glimpse of slavery through a very old coin.” Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2012.


Jeff Mahoney. “Award named for Vince Morgan honours his community-building.” Hamilton Spectator, February 24, 2012.


“Black soldiers faced own battle.” Hamilton Spectator, May 17, 2012.


Evelyn Myrie. “Hamilton invited to Jamaica’s party.” Hamilton Spectator, June 14, 2012.


Jeff Mahoney. “A family deserving of celebration.” Hamilton Spectator, July 13, 2012.


Kate Adach. “A video tour of fugitive slave life in Hamilton.” CBC News, July 13, 2012.


Teri Percoskie. “Focus on the future at Holland/Howard reunion.” Hamilton Spectator, July 16, 2012.


Adam Carter & Julia Chapman. “Jamaicans in Hamilton celebrate Island and Canadian heritage.” CBC News, August 5, 2012.


Richard Douglass-Chin. “Trinidad’s influence worth celebrating.” Hamilton Spectator, August 25, 2012.


Jon Wells. “A life well lived: Hamilton’s Lincoln Alexander exits the stage at 90.” Hamilton Spectator, October 20, 2012.


“African-Caribbean youth celebrated.” Hamilton Spectator, October 21, 2012.


Evelyn Myrie. “‘One classy guy’.” Hamilton Spectator, October 26, 2012.


“Martin Luther King celebration.” Hamilton Spectator, January 20, 2013.


Mark McNeil. “Author chronicles Hamilton Mountain’s ‘Little Africa’.” Hamilton Spectator, February 1, 2013.


“A full house at John Holland Awards gala.” Hamilton Spectator, February 3, 2013.


Simon T. Mach. “Who has a place in Black History Month?” Hamilton Spectator, February 4, 2013.


“Hamilton’s francophone celebration of Black History Month.” Hamilton Spectator, February 18, 2013.


“Little Africa Remembered.” Hamilton Mountain News, March 5, 2013.


Mark McNeil. “One of the first non-natives in area was a slave.” Hamilton Spectator, July 30, 2013.


Jeff Mahoney. “MAHONEY: Trail-blazing doctor overcame several obstacles.” Hamilton Spectator, October 30, 2013.


“Lincoln Alexander gets his own day: Jan. 21.” Hamilton Spectator, November 29, 2013.


“Aboriginals, black people over-represented at Hamilton jail.” CBC News, December 6, 2013.


“Mandela memorial moved to City Hall from church.” Hamilton Spectator, December 9, 2013.


“John C. Holland winners aim to give back.” Hamilton Spectator, February 2, 2014.


“Neighbour’s narratives remain forgotten.” Hamilton Spectator, February 6, 2014.


Albert Delitala. “Rev. John C. Holland remembered.” CHCH News, June 22, 2014.


“Finding a unified Black voice in Hamilton.” CBC News, September 24, 2014.


“Spice up your weekend.” Hamilton Spectator, May 28, 2014.


Albert Delitala. “Sounds of the Caribbean at Mohawk.” CHCH News, June 1, 2014.


“60 years since death of John C. Holland.” Hamilton Spectator, June 22, 2014.


Carmela Fragomeni. “Anti-racism centre gets city committee nod.” Hamilton Spectator, September 22, 2014.


Evelyn Myrie. “Myrie: New hotline will not fight racism.” Hamilton Spectator, November 6, 2014.


Emma Reilly. “His longtime church celebrates as Lincoln Alexander Day goes national this week.” Hamilton Spectator, January 18, 2015.


John Rietl. “Matthew Green: What it means to be Hamilton’s 1st black city councillor.” CBC News, February 7, 2015.


“John C. Holland Awards honour 12.” Hamilton Spectator, February 8, 2015.


“City acquires Griffin House in exchange for Eramosa Karst.” Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2015.


“Forum focuses on black history, unity and diversity.” Hamilton Spectator, March 1, 2015.


“Hamilton’s black community remains greatest target of hate crimes.” Hamilton Spectator, March 25, 2015.


Mark McNeil. “Hamilton teen first Canadian black soldier to die in First World War.” Hamilton Spectator, May 12, 2015.


“‘Ms. Tilly’ Johnson retires from the market.” Hamilton Spectator, July 4, 2015.


Kelly Bennett. “Hamilton police disproportionately stop and question black people.” CBC News, July 23, 2015.


“Have your say tonight on controversial carding by Hamilton police at city hall meeting.” Hamilton Spectator, September 15, 2015.


“Holland Awards bring together diverse black community.” Hamilton Spectator, February 7, 2016.


Mark McNeil. “Uncovering stories is a family affair.” Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2016.


Chantel Grillo. “Black History Month.” CHCH News, February 17, 2016.


“Nerene Virgin, Evelyn Myrie honoured in new book.” Hamilton Spectator, June 16, 2016.


Kelly Bennett. “The downtown church where former slaves found refuge in Hamilton.” CBC News, July 31, 2016.


Mark McNeil. “Remembering Emancipation at Griffin House.” Hamilton Spectator, August 2, 2016.


“February 7, 1851: Hamilton crier Paolo Brown gives powerful lecture on slavery.” Hamilton Spectator, September 23, 2016.


“Aug. 7, 1932: Ray Lewis becomes first Canadian black athlete to win Olympic medal.” Hamilton Spectator, September 23, 2016.


Natalie Paddon. “PASSAGES: Longtime educator and community activist helped marginalized population.” Hamilton Spectator, October 30, 2016.


Carmela Fragomeni. “New body formed to represent black Hamiltonians.” Hamilton Spectator, November 24, 2016.


Sheryl Nadler. “WhoWhatWear: Marlene Thomas-Osbourne.” Hamilton Spectator, February 16, 2017.


Steve Buist. “Holland award winners ‘aren’t going to be voiceless’.” Hamilton Spectator, February 26, 2017.


“OBITUARY: Stewart Memorial’s beloved icon lived a life of service.” Hamilton Spectator, March 19, 2017.


Natalie Paddon. “Emancipation Day marked alongside Canada’s 150th.” Hamilton Spectator, August 7, 2017.


“Griffin House plan nixed by salamander.” Hamilton Spectator, August 8, 2017.


Carmela Fragomeni. “Tiny hamlet unveils rich history of welcoming runaway slaves in the 1800s.” Hamilton Spectator, September 22, 2017.


Emma Reilly. “Exemplary youth honoured at Potpourri awards.” Hamilton Spectator, October 15, 2017.


Steve Milton. “Gridiron Underground makes it to air.” Hamilton Spectator, December 11, 2017.


“Hamilton’s black community honours leaders at annual John C. Holland Awards.” Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2018.

“Holland Awards honour stars of Hamilton’s black community.” CBC News, February 11, 2018.


Adam Carter. “The untold story of how Hamilton’s black community was built.” CBC News, February 20, 2018.


Laura Clementson. “‘It was inspiring’: Hamilton kids celebrate black culture at Black Panther screening.” CBC News, March 2, 2018.


“Popular phys-ed teacher and former Ticat inspired students to do their best.” Hamilton Spectator, March 5, 2018.


Samantha Craggs. “Tribunal rejects black councillor’s claim Hamilton police stop was racial profiling.” CBC News, April 26, 2018.


Scott Radley. “Hamilton sprinter’s legend will live on at the Ray Lewis Track and Field Centre.” Hamilton Spectator, August 22, 2018.


“Hamilton school to be named after Bernie Custis, pro football’s 1st black starting QB.” CBC News, September 18, 2018.


Samantha Craggs. “Matthew Green on race, power, politics and more as Hamilton’s 1st black city councillor.” CBC News, November 6, 2018.


“John C. Holland Awards shine light on more than a dozen who improve life in Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, February 4, 2019.

Ric Taylor. “Life of Brian.” VIEW, May 25, 2019.


Evelyn Myrie. “Afro Caribbean Association marks a milestone.” Hamilton Spectator, November 14, 2019.


“PHOTOS: Hamilton’s Afro Canadian Caribbean Association celebrated 40 years.” Hamilton Spectator, November 22, 2019.


“Inaugural Order of Hamilton honour for community leader.” Ron Fanfair, February 6, 2020. 


“Black youth mentorship program resumes after friction between Hamilton board and HCCI.” CBC News, February 27, 2020.


“Wilma Morrison was a formidable force.” Ron Fanfair, April 1, 2020.


Katrina Clarke. “Four outbreaks over in Hamilton, anti-hate group calls on city to start tracking race-based data.” Hamilton Spectator, May 7, 2020.


Jeff Mahoney. “Hamilton’s Anita Isaac: A wonderful life with a secret revealed at the end.” Hamilton Spectator, May 23, 2020.


Teviah Moro. “Gore Park rally in solidarity with U.S. protests. But ‘racism is everywhere,’ attendees say, including Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, June 1, 2020.


Teviah Moro. “COVID-19: Hamilton public health urges precautions during protests.” Hamilton Spectator, June 2, 2020.


Samantha Craggs. “Black Lives Matter activists take list of demands to Hamilton agencies.” CBC News, June 2, 2020.


Fallon Hewitt. “Group calls for defunding of Hamilton Police in wake of anti-Black racism protests.” Hamilton Spectator, June 4, 2020.


“Wilma Morrison ‘fought passionately’ for the preservation of black history in Canada.” CBC News, June 4, 2020.


Katrina Clarke. “Students say schools don’t need police, already have supports in place.” Hamilton Spectator, June 12, 2020.


Kate McCullough. “‘No justice, no peace, no racist police’: Thousands join Hamilton Black Friday rally.” Hamilton Spectator, June 12, 2020.


Fallon Hewitt. “‘Unity is power:’ Hundreds rally against anti-Black racism in Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, June 13, 2020.


Matthew Van Dongen. “Hamilton public board ends controversial cops-in-schools program.” Hamilton Spectator, June 22, 2020.


Matthew Van Dongen. “Push to end cops-in-schools shifts to Hamitlon’s Catholic board.” Hamilton Spectator, June 24, 2020.


Nicole O’Reilly. “Anti-racism protestors march down York Boulevard, rally at Hamilton City Hall.” Hamilton Spectator, June 28, 2020.

Graham Rockingham. “Hamilton’s John Ellison and Harrison Kennedy talk about anti-Black racism in advance of CHCH Canada Day special.” Hamilton Spectator, June 29, 2020.


Fallon Hewitt. “‘My burden’: What does racism look like in Hamilton?” Hamilton Spectator, July 2, 2020.


Kate McCullough. “McMaster University to conduct external review following reports of anti-Black racism.” Hamilton Spectator, July 18, 2020.


Kate McCullough, Teviah Moro & Sebastian Bron. “‘Defund the police’ strikes outside Hamilton City Hall.” Hamilton Spectator, July 23, 2020.


Jeff Mahoney. “Hamilton residents marching for Black lives, because the work was left unfinished.” Hamilton Spectator, July 25, 2020.


Teviah Moro & Kate McCullough. “Longtime Hamilton social-service leader Denise Brooks mourned.” Hamilton Spectator, July 29, 2020.


Fallon Hewitt. “‘We will rise’: Hamilton’s Afro-Canadian Caribbean Association celebrates Emancipation Day.” Hamilton Spectator, August 2, 2020.


Fallon Hewitt. “Allegations prompts racism investigation at Hamilton’s public board.” Hamilton Spectator, August 3, 2020.


Kate McCullough. “Hamilton clinic helps newcomers access health care.” Hamilton Spectator, August 5, 2020.


Lucy El-Sherif. “This is what anti-racism change looks like.” Hamilton Spectator, August 7, 2020.


Sebastian Bron. “Investigation launched into racism allegations at Hamilton’s public school board.” Hamilton Spectator, August 17, 2020.


Jon Wells. “Pioneering Hamilton educator and community leader Eleanor Rodney dies.” Hamilton Spectator, September 19, 2020.


Teviah Moro. “Evelyn Myrie to guide reboot of Hamilton Anti-racism Resource Centre.” Hamilton Spectator, September 24, 2020.


Abigail Cukier. “Black-owned businesses in Hamilton saw bump after Blackout Tuesday, but support is waning.” Hamilton Spectator, October 14, 2020.


Sebastian Bron. “St. Joe’s launches critical mental health program for Black youth.” Hamilton Spectator, October 17, 2020.


Scott Radley. “Review into McMaster athletics finds culture of systemic anti-Black racism.” Hamilton Spectator, October 27, 2020.


Bobby Hristova. “McMaster University athletics has clear culture of systemic anti-Black racism: report.” CBC News, October 27, 2020.


Steve Buist. “Hamilton fire department will soon have just two Black full-time firefighters as service struggles with lack of diversity.” Hamilton Spectator, October 28, 2020.


Wade Hemsworth. “Educator, community activist: Gary Warner’s work is part of “an integrated life.” McMaster Daily News, November 18, 2020.


Jon Wells. “Community ‘icon’ Gary Warner receives honorary degree; confronted racism in Hamilton 53 years ago.” Hamilton Spectator, November 20, 2020.


Teviah Moro & Sebastian Bron. “Hamilton councillor concerned about police intimidation as defund protestors hunker down.” Hamilton Spectator, November 25, 2020.


Matthew Van Dongen. “Hamilton tears down ‘defund’ encampment in front of city hall.” Hamilton Spectator, November 30, 2020.


“Dr. Gary Warner made his mark at McMaster and in Hamilton.” Ron Fanfair, December 21, 2020.

Sarah Adjekum. “Lessons for 2021: What COVID-19 taught us about BIPOC displacement.” Hamilton Spectator, January 4, 2021.


Mark McNeil. “Hamilton’s heritage: 2020 was a year for the history books.” Hamilton Spectator, January 4, 2021.


Kate McCullough. “St. Thomas More ‘Knights’ tackle racism with new student-run committee.” Hamilton Spectator, January 22, 2021.


Jon Wells. “‘Suffering and joy’ invoked at Hamilton Black History Month launch.” Hamilton Spectator, January 31, 2021.


Fallon Hewitt. “Investigation finds evidence of racism and ‘efforts to silence’ voice of former student trustee within Hamilton’s public board.” Hamilton Spectator, February 3, 2021.


Katrina Clarke. “HWDSB trustee racism scandal: Everything you need to know about Hamilton public school board’s racism probe.” Hamilton Spectator, February 10, 2021.


Jon Wells. “Voices of the present on Hamilton’s Black history.” Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2021.


Jon Wells. “Black history in Hamilton: A promised land of hope and struggle.” Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2021.


Jon Wells. “Black history in Hamilton: A tour.” Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2021.


Teviah Moro. “City plants ‘seed of regrowth’ for Hamilton Anti-Racism Resource Centre.” Hamilton Spectator, February 18, 2021.


“HWDSB trustee racism scandal: Where’s the accountability?” Hamilton Spectator, February 20, 2021.


Katrina Clarke. “Inside the report: Breaking down what the four HWDSB trustees are accused of doing.” Hamilton Spectator, February 22, 2021.


Dermot P. Nolan. “Time for a statue of Lincoln Alexander in downtown Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, February 22, 2021.


“Would there be less racism and extremism if we were better at teaching Black history?” CBC News, February, 2021.


Kate McCullough. “New program aims to support mental health of Black and racialized youth.” Hamilton Spectator, March 4, 2021.


Katrina Clarke. “Hamilton trustees asked one of their own to resign. What now?” Hamilton Spectator, March 9, 2021.


Katrina Clarke. “HWDSB trustees Buck and Archer respond to boards third-party racism probe.” Hamilton Spectator, March 15, 2021.

KC Hoard. “Hamilton’s first BIPOC film festival premiering in May at The Westdale theatre.” Hamilton Spectator, March 15, 2021.


Kevin Gonci. “Hamilton’s public school board needs systemic change.” Hamilton Spectator, March 16, 2021.


“Canada’s first Black soldier to fall in action.” Hamilton Spectator, April 4, 2021.


Fallon Hewitt. “Hamilton police reports drop in hate crimes, but annual report is ‘incomplete,’ advocates say.” Hamilton Spectator, April 22, 2021.


Maria Iqbal. “Hamilton opens vaccines to racialized residents over 18 in hot spots - but clinic books up in matter of hours.” Hamilton Spectator, April 23, 2021.


KC Hoard. “Hamilton artist Esmaa Mohamoud hopes new exhibition inspires conversations about race.” Hamilton Spectator, April 24, 2021.


Joanna Frketich. “‘Nothing happened’: Vaccines took too long to get to Hamilton’s racialized communities.” Hamilton Spectator, April 26, 2021.


 “Hamilton public school board naming new school after Viola Desmond.” CBC News, April 28, 2021.


Teviah Moro. “Racist backlash to Hamilton’s effort to vaccinate Black and racialized residents condemned.” Hamilton Spectator, April 29, 2021.


Sandi Bell. “No Hate in the Hammer: Addressing hate in Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, May 15, 2021.

Fallon Hewitt. “Anti-hate summit offers insight into ‘difficult’ conversations on racism in Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, May 20, 2021.


Jeff Mahoney. “It wasn’t taught in school. Curtis Bell learned about Hamilton’s Black History around the table.” Hamilton Spectator, May 29, 2021.

Richard Leitner. “Hamilton public school board to create ‘overdue’ anti-Black racism policy.” Hamilton Spectator, June 2, 2021.


“2021 John C. Holland Awards winners.” Hamilton Spectator, June 20, 2021.

“Annual John C. Holland Awards celebrate Hamilton’s Black youth,” Hamilton Spectator, June 20, 2021.


Kevin Werner. “Celebrate Emancipation with the Afro-Canadian Caribbean Association of Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, July 28, 2021.

Gordon Cameron. “John C. Holland Awards may have been virtual, but the quality of the winners was as real as ever.” Hamilton Spectator, June 28, 2021.


Katrina Clarke. “Author of new activity book about Black Hamiltonians hopes it fills curriculum void.” Hamilton Spectator, July 31, 2021.

Mark Newman. “Bringing Little Africa back to life on Hamilton Mountain.” Hamilton Spectator, August 17, 2021.

Maria Iqbal. “Hamilton public health offers incentives for the unvaccinated,” Hamilton Spectator, August 19, 2021.

Katrina Clarke. “Black community leaders call for charges to be dropped against six affordable housing advocates.” Hamilton Spectator, December 1, 2021.

Alessia Passafiume. “Hamilton organizations receive racist phone calls following clash between police and housing advocates.” Hamilton Spectator, December 4, 2021.

Kojo Damptey. “Hamilton mayor failing racialized citizens.” Hamilton Spectator, January 9, 2022.

Katrina Clarke. “Encampment protestor speaks out after SIU drops probe.” Hamilton Spectator, January 18, 2022.

Mark McNeil. “Paola Brown was the ‘great-grandfather’ of Black activism in Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, February 7, 2022.

Jeff Mahoney. “Youth meets age at ACCA’s Black History Month 2022.” Hamilton Spectator, February 14, 2022.

Fallon Hewitt. “‘Very concerned’: Black community leaders renew call for independent review into arrest of Hamilton housing activists.” Hamilton Spectator, February 20, 2022.

Mike Pearson. “McMaster University grad launches Hamilton Black History Database.” Hamilton Spectator, February 21, 2022.

Barry Gray. “Hamilton Anti-Racism groups declare Concession Street a Hate-Free Zone.” Hamilton Spectator, March 21, 2022.

Susan Clairmont. “Hamilton activist Sarah Jama: ‘I make people feel uncomfortable sometimes’.” Hamilton Spectator, April 1, 2022.

Mark Newman. “‘The Journey, Emancipation to Liberation’ by Israel Crooks comes to Concession Street.” Hamilton Spectator, May 10, 2022.

“2022 John C. Holland Awards winners.” Hamilton Spectator, June 19, 2022.

Craig Campbell. “Sophia Burthen Pooley panel still under review by City of Hamilton.” Hamilton Spectator, July 20, 2022.

Kathy Yanchus. “Exploring Halton’s Black history.” Hamilton Spectator, July 25, 2022.

Desmond Brown. “Black people in Hamilton need to embrace and accept each other, historian says on Emancipation Day.” CBC News, August 3, 2022.

Bobby Hristova. “Ottawa provides $1.9M to help form Black business network in Windsor and Hamilton.” CBC News, August 15, 2022.

Ritika Dubey. “Feds invest $1.9M to support Black-led businesses in Hamilton and Windsor.” Hamilton Spectator, August 17, 2022.

Ritika Dubey. “Hamilton summer camp preparing Black kids to return to school with confidence.” Toronto Star, August 24, 2022.

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