Community leaders in a variety of professions gain local and national prominence for their societal contributions, local Black men take up jobs as sleeping car porters and fulfil military positions in WW1 and WW2, and Black Hamiltonians struggle with enduring systems racial discrimination while trying to access equal education, job opportunities, and housing.
NOTE: Resources containing hyperlinks to online materials are highlighted in Bold font
A. Jeffers Toby, ed. (1991). Hamilton: A Black Perspective. A History of Blacks and their Contribution. Hamilton: Afro Canadian Caribbean Association of Hamilton and District. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C10522]
Aaron Parry. (2021). Deeply Rooted: A Hamilton Black History Activity Book. Afro Canadian Caribbean Association.
Adrienne Shadd. (2010). “Little Africa’ Revisited: Tracing Hamilton Mountain’s Black Community:” Report to Culture Division, Community Service Services Department. City of Hamilton. [Appendix F in PDF]
Adrienne Shadd. (2010). The Journey From Tollgate to Parkway: African Canadians in Hamilton. Dundurn Press. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C155096]
Al-X. (1995). “Hamilton’s First Family of Jazz and Blues,” View, 9.
Brian Henley. “For a Time, the Klan Reared its Ugly Head,” Hamilton Spectator, June 22, 1991.
Hamilton Public Library Special Collections. (1972). Ray Lewis Scrapbook. Hamilton Public Library. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C32360]
Hamilton Public Library Special Collections. (1987). Stewart Memorial Church: scrapbook. Hamilton Public Library. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C6073]
Hamilton Public Library Special Collections. (1994). Blacks: scrapbook. Hamilton Public Library. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C11932]
Jessie Louise Beattie. (1956). John Christie Holland: Man of the Year. Ryerson.
John Cooper. (1999). Shadow Running: Ray Lewis, Canadian Railway Porter & Olympic Athlete. Umbrella Press. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C24037]
John Cooper. (2002). Rapid Ray: The Story of Ray Lewis. Tundra Books. [link to resource in the Hamilton Public Library Catalogue - https://hpl.bibliocommons.com/v2/record/S125C569569]
Kristin McLaren. “‘We had no desire to be set apart’: Forced Segregation of Black Students in Canada West Public Schools and Myths of British Egalitarianism.” Social History, 37(73), 27-50.
Mark McNeil. “The Legend of the Washingtons,” Hamilton Spectator, March 28, 1987.
Local Newspaper Articles (Chronological)
*Physical Hamilton Spectator articles may be found in the Hamilton Public Library archives. More info: https://lha.hpl.ca/articles/hamilton-spectator-collection-0
“Escaped from Slavery: Interesting Incident in the Life History of a Man Who Still Resides in Hamilton.” Hamilton Herald, August 23, 1902.
“Henry Criel Dead: Well-Known Citizen Passes Peacefully to the Great Beyond.” Hamilton Spectator, October 17, 1904.
“Prof. Gant Dead: Best Known Colored Resident of City Passes Away.” Hamilton Herald, January 18, 1905.
“Professor Gant Dead: Well-known Barber Succumbed to Bright’s Disease This Morning.” Hamilton Spectator, January 18, 1905.
“Bicycle Thief Got One Year: Coloured Youth, With a Past, Sent to Central Prison by Police Magistrate.” Hamilton Herald, August 24, 1907.
“Mrs. J. Diggs has Joined the Great Majority.” Hamilton Herald, November 20, 1919.
“Ku, Klux, Klan Rears Head in City of Hamilton with 32 Initiations.” Toronto Globe, November 19, 1924.
“Ladies Klan Would March to City Hall: Mrs. E. Miller Declares K.K.K. Has 1000 Members Here.” Hamilton Herald, March 20, 1925.
“Ku Klux Klan: Crusaders Have No Feeling Towards the Order.” Hamilton Spectator, March 27, 1925.
“Klan Organizing in this District.” Hamilton Spectator, March 1, 1930.
“Johnson Claims Indian Descent: No Negro Blood in Him, Victim States.” Hamilton Spectator, February 18, 1925.
“G. Morton Dead: He Was Letter Carrier and on Local Staff for 36 Years.” Hamilton Herald, August 20, 1927.
“Thomas J. Holland is Called to Rest: Was Last Surviving Member of the Noted O’Bannyon (sic) Jubilee Singers.” Hamilton Herald, June 11, 1928.
“Klansmen of Hamilton Defend Their Conduct in ‘Raid’ at Oakville.” Toronto Globe, March 3, 1930.
“Former Coloured Colony on Mount Dubbed Little Africa.” Hamilton Spectator, 15 July 1936.
“Coloured Refugees Formed Settlement.” Hamilton Spectator, 15 July 1946.
“States Racial Prejudice Here Hurts Negroes.” Hamilton Spectator, January 16, 1937.
“Mission School, Frame Church, Toll Gates.” Hamilton Spectator, 15 November 1947.
“Negro Veteran Denied Admission to Dundurn Dance.” Hamilton Spectator, July 7, 1948.
“Racial Discrimination Motion Lost in Council.” Hamilton Spectator, July 13, 1948.